Development:Using Git for Camino development
How to use Git locally to supercharge your Camino development workflow.
by Sean Murphy
Even though the Camino source is managed in CVS, you can use Git locally to track the official repository. Doing so offers many advantages to the development process. You can easily work on multiple bugs at once, you can stash your code or make a new branch to perform a review on the side, and you can easily keep your work synchronized on multiple computers.
This article assumes you have already checked out a fresh copy of the Camino source. Follow our build instructions to do this. Note: you don't need to build yet, so after setting things up you can issue the following command to checkout the source only:
make -f client.mk checkout MOZ_CO_PROJECT=macbrowser
Note: Throughout the article /PathToCaminoSource/ is the directory that contains a mozilla/ subfolder with the source tree, and a CaminoObj/ folder for all the build objects.
Installing Git on Mac OS X
The short and sweet steps to install Git on the Mac:
Note: Replace the "188.8.131.52" Git version below with the most current release. Check http://git-scm.com/ to find out what the current revision is.
curl http://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/git-184.108.40.206.tar.bz2 | tar xj
sudo make prefix=/usr/local install
curl http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/git-manpages-220.127.116.11.tar.bz2 | sudo tar xj -C /usr/local/share/man
(The last line installs the documentation. Building it directly requires a mess of dependencies ;)).
Git can also be installed with a binary installer hosted at Google Code
Initial Git configuration
At minimum, you'll need to tell Git about yourself:
git config --global user.name "Your Name"
git config --global user.email "email@example.com"
Additionally, some other settings can make interacting with Git more pleasant.
Display Git output with color:
git config --global color.ui auto
git config --global color.status auto
git config --global color.diff auto
git config --global color.branch auto
git config --global color.interactive auto
Make some shortcuts for common commands, and support your svn habits:
git config --global alias.st status
git config --global alias.ci commit
git config --global alias.co checkout
e.g. git checkout can be shortened to git co
Excluding certain files from being tracked by Git
Just like .cvsignore and Mozilla's .hgignore, we'll create an ignore file for Git to exclude certain files we do not want it to manage.
Exclude files for all repositories
You can create a global ignore file to always exclude files from any Git repository on your machine. In here we'll list certain Mac development related files we'll never want Git to see and ask us if we want to track it.
Save this file as ~/.gitignore
.DS_Store *.orig *.rej *~ # The following ignores all files in the .xcodeproj bundle, # And then adds back in only the project (skipping the user files) *.xcodeproj/ !*.xcodeproj/project.pbxproj *~.nib *.swp *.o .#* a.out
Then, we have to configure Git to use our global excludes file:
git config --global core.excludesfile ~/.gitignore
Exclude Mozilla specific files
Git will also look for a .gitignore file in the root directory of each repository. In here we can exclude additional files that are specific to Camino development, ones that we would not want to ignore across the entire system.
Save this file as /PathToCaminoSource/.gitignore
# Exclude certain Mozilla files (user specific / auto generated) .mozconfig.mk .mozconfig.out configure$ config.cache config.log ID Makefile config.status .client-defs.mk config-defs.h unallmakefiles nss mozilla-config.h mozconfig .mozconfig # Empty marker file that's generated when we check out NSS security/manager/.nss.checkout # We ignored Xcode's build/ directory globally in Git # But the mozilla source has */build/ directories we'll need. # Cancel the ignore, then exclude only the camino Xcode build directory. !build *camino/build # Ignore CVS metadata CVS .cvsignore cvsco.log # Build objects dist *.pyc CaminoObj
Initializing your Git repository
We're now ready to create a new Git repository. I use the mozilla/ directory inside of my Camino source tree as the root of my repository
This creates an empty Git repository. At this point, issuing a status command shows which files Git sees but is not yet tracking:
# On branch master # # Initial commit # # Untracked files: # (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) # # .gitignore # mozilla/
Note: We do want to manage the .gitignore file, as otherwise we'd need to hand create it and keep it in sync on each clone of the repository.
Now we're ready to add all of the files into the Git repository.
git add .
Now, showing status lists all of the files that Git has staged to commit:
# On branch master # # Initial commit # # Changes to be committed: # (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage) # # new file: mozilla/browser/config/version.txt # new file: mozilla/docshell/Makefile.in # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/Makefile.in # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/crashtests/369126-1.html # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/crashtests/403574-1.xhtml # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/crashtests/crashtests.list # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/nsAboutRedirector.cpp # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/nsAboutRedirector.h # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/nsCDefaultURIFixup.idl # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/nsCDocShell.idl # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/nsDSURIContentListener.cpp # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/nsDSURIContentListener.h # new file: mozilla/docshell/base/nsDefaultURIFixup.cpp ...
Finally, create a new, initial commit
git commit -m "Initial import"
Day to day Camino development with Git
Now, this is where the real fun begins, and when you notice that all the above setup was extremely worth the effort!
Creating a branch to work on a bug
Git, by default, will create a master branch. This is where I keep the official, untouched source from Camino's CVS repository.
When I want to begin work on a certain bug, I will create a new branch. The following command is a shortcut to create a new branch and also check it out:
git checkout -b NameOfCurrentBug
Now, you can edit away. Anytime you need to switch contexts, maybe to work on a different bug that suddenly came up or to step aside and review a patch, you can just keep creating branches to do this:
git checkout -b NameOfCurrentBugToReview master
You can list the branch you want to stem from as the last argument. In this case, we weren't on the master branch, so we explicitly told Git to branch from there rather than defaulting to the current one.
Staying in sync with the Camino CVS repository
Your Git repo's master branch is our mirror to the pristine CVS source. Whenever you want to sync with the official Camino repository, just checkout your master branch, perform an update through CVS, and commit the changes:
git checkout master
cvs update -dP client.mk
make -f client.mk checkout
Many times though, you only need/want to update the mozilla/camino/ tree:
cvs update -dP
Optionally, you can easily see what was changed upstream:
Finally, add/commit the updates into Git:
git add .
git commit -m "Sync with CVS"
Incorporating the latest CVS changes into your working branches
We now have pulled the latest CVS updates into Git, but the branches that we're working on need to be merged with the latest updates as well, which are kept on the master branch. For this, we can use the git rebase command.
git checkout NameOfBugBranch
git rebase master
You can read more about git rebase, and how it differs from git merge.
Working on multiple Macs
One of the other huge advantages of using Git locally is that it easily makes it possible to develop the same feature across multiple machines, keeping all of your work in sync.
On your other Mac, we'll clone the original repository:
git clone ssh://FirstMac/~/PathToCaminoRepository PathToLocalCaminoRepository
When you clone, Git sets up a remote corresponding to the original machine, called origin. You can use this remote identifier to push and pull updates to and from your other Mac.
To check out branches that you had on the other machine:
git checkout -b BranchName origin/BranchName
Branch BranchName set up to track remote branch refs/remotes/origin/BranchName.
This output means that Git automatically configured this new branch as a "tracking" branch, and any remote operations will know to work against the branch on the original machine. Learn more about what that means here.
Edit files, then commit the changes locally:
git commit -am "Changed a few files"
Push my updates back onto the other machine where we cloned from:
Or, on the other end, use git pull and git fetch on the original machine. See the community Git book for more information about the distributed workflow in Git.
The Gotcha: Communicating with CVS on your other Mac
Our Git repository does not track or keep a copy of the CVS metadata. This means that when we clone the repository onto another machine, we are unable to actually sync or otherwise communicate with Camino's CVS repo on any secondary machine. Tracking the CVS/ information creates too much noise in the Git repository and I haven't found any sane way to keep this data in Git.
Therefore, anytime you need to interact with the official CVS repository, it has to be done on the original machine. To sync with upstream changes on the Camino trunk, you first need to cvs update on the original Mac commit the changes into the master branch like always (this can be done over SSH since you're remote). Then, you can then git fetch/pull the updates through origin/master branch on your remote repository.
Performing cvs diff and creating patches must also be done on the original machine, unfortunately. To do this, just push or pull your changes onto the machine with the original repository (and CVS information), and then perform a cvs diff from the Git branch your changes are on. (It is possible to perform a diff with Git, from your working branch to a freshly synced master, but the patch will appear like it's from Git and I'm not sure if this is acceptable or not, so I usually just do the regular CVS routine).
Appendix: Misc Git tips
Bash enhancements for use with Git
Git includes a bash script that offers tab-competion of commands, branch names, etc. It's easy to install and a joy to have.
- Look for the "git-completion.sh" file. It is usually found in git-x.x.x.x/contrib/completion/, but I think recently a Git patch has it moving to /usr/local/share/git-completion/ during installation.
- Copy this file to somewhere (e.g. ~/.git-completion.sh).
- Added the following line to your .bashrc:
Branch name in prompt
Additionally, it is extremely helpful to also have your bash prompt list the current branch you are on. Enable this by doing the following:
- In your bash profile, add the following to your PS1:
$(__git_ps1 " (%s)")
(If you aren't in a Git repo, it won't display anything).